Filed under: Drugs, Forensics, UK Government Information | Tags: forensics, illicit drugs, testing
The two devices are:
- Draeger DrugTest 5000, previously approved for preliminary drug testing in 2012, and now for mobile preliminary drug testing from March 2015 for cannabis and cocaine
- Securetec DrugWipe 3S S303G, approved for mobile preliminary drug testing from December 2014 for cannabis and cocaine
These are welcome developments in having validated and reliable testing devices available to police forces for the detection of drug driving. Devices for the detection of other illegal drugs are not yet available and, as we posted previously, no certified reference materials (CRMs) are available as yet to support these devices and their use. This distinguishes them from the roadside testing regime in place for drink driving cases.
The Government have moved to introduce a ban on five further so-called Legal Highs from 10 April 2015. This has been done by means of a Temporary Class Drug Order (TCDO), following recommendations from the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD). The ACMD were concerned about the psychoactive nature of the substances.
The 5 drugs which are covered by this ban are:
- 3,4-Dichloromethylphenidate (3,4-DCMP);
- Isopropylphenidate (IPP or IPPD);
- Methylnaphthidate (HDMP-28);
- Any stereoisomeric form of any of these substances and any preparation or other product containing any of these substances.
Forensic laboratories will need robust, validated analytical methods to identify and measure these substances, and will need to extend their scope of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation to take account of this.
Filed under: Drugs, Forensics, UK Legislation | Tags: forensics, legislation
Two new substances have been listed as Class A drugs under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2015 (SI 215) brings under the permanent control of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 a potent opioid known as MT-45 and a synthetic stimulant known as 4,4’-DMAR as Class A drugs under the Act. This legislation is enacted in Northern Ireland by The Misuse of Drugs (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2015 (SR 53).
MT-45 has the systematic IUPAC name of 1-Cyclohexyl-4-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperazine, and almost all its opioid activity resides in the (S) enantiomer. It is associated with hearing loss and unconsciousness.
Structure of MT-45
4,4’-DMAR, or 4,4′-Dimethylaminorex, has the systematic IUPAC name of 4,5-Dihydro-4-methyl-5-(4-methylphenyl)-2-oxazolamine.
Structure of 4,4’-DMAR
This so-called “designer drug” is believed to have been responsible for many deaths in the EU over the last few years.
Analytical methods to detect and quantify these two substances must be added to the toolkit of the forensic science laboratories in the UK to properly enforce his new regulation. A reference material of 4,4’-DMAR is available from LGC Standards to help the forensic scientist in this regard. No reference material for MT-45 appears to be available as yet.
Filed under: Drugs, Forensics, pharmaceuticals, transport, UK Government Information | Tags: forensics, illicit drugs, medicines, regulation
New legislation which covers the subject of drug driving come into force in the UK on 2 March 2015. This legislation, published by the Department of Transport, aim to improve road safety by setting limits for the levels of 8 illicit drugs and 8 prescriptions drugs in the bloodstream. These are set so that levels above are associated with impairment to drive. The levels for the illicit drugs are very low, but those for the prescription drugs (clonazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, methadone and morphine) are much higher to reflect average to above-average prescription use so that those drivers keeping to any prescribed dose would be safely below the legal limits.
There is also a proposal to add amphetamine at a level of 250 µg/L to the new legislation – this level is sufficiently high not to catch legitimate users of amphetamine for medical purposes (e.g. those suffering with ADHD).
The Government Chemist responded to a consultation issued in 2014 by the Department of Transport and the response can be accessed here. One of our major concerns is that for legislation like this to be fully effective, measures need to be in place similar to those for drink-driving such as validated roadside tests and certified reference materials (CRMs) to underpin laboratory measurements for drugs in blood. The measurement uncertainties associated with many of these measurements are significantly higher than those associated with alcohol in blood measurements, and these can, in turn, lead to higher uncertainty in the interpretation of results. This is an issue which does, in our opinion, need to be properly resolved for the legislation to have the effect for which it was designed.
The UK Home Office has approved a second mobile preliminary drug testing device, for use by the police at the roadside to detect drug residues in drivers suspected of having taken illegal or controlled drugs.
The Securetec DrugWipe 3S S303G, which is manufactured by Securetec Detektion-Systeme AG can detect cocaine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol – THC – (the main active ingredient of cannabis.
We have previously maintained that for roadside testing for illegal or controlled drugs to be effective, validated and reliable devices for carrying out such testing are needed, and we still believe that certified reference materials (CRMs) are required to calibrate these if they are to be used for evidential purposes.
Filed under: Drugs, UK Government Information, UK Legislation | Tags: illicit drugs, prescription drugs, regulation
The UK Government has introduced legislation (SI 2868/2014) to establish drug-driving limits for 16 controlled drugs in blood in England and Wales.
The drugs covered by this legislation, which comes into force on 2 March 2015, includes both illicit drugs and prescription drugs. The list also includes benzoylecgonine (BZE) which is a metabolite indicative of cocaine use.
The full list, together with the limits in blood (in µg/L) is as follows:
Controlled drug Limit
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide 1
Forensic toxicology laboratories will need to be able to measure these drugs in blood using validated and accredited procedures accurately at these levels in order to play their part in the enforcement of this legislation.
The development of robust and effective roadside testing procedures to aid the police in enforcement is also something which should, ideally, be addressed in the short-term so that an equivalent system to that currently in place for the enforcement of drink-driving legislation can be instituted.
Filed under: Drugs, Forensics, UK Government Information, UK Legislation | Tags: forensics, illicit drugs, prescription drugs, testing
Tough new measures to crack down on the menace of drug driving moved a step closer today after the government issued new guidance to healthcare professionals. The new offence of driving with certain controlled drugs, including some prescription drugs, above specified limits is due to come into force on Monday 2nd March 2015 after the government presented the regulations to Parliament today, Thursday 3rd July. The guidance helps doctors and nurses to start explaining the new rules in advance of the launch and reassure patients who take prescription drugs that they will be able to drive safely without fear of being prosecuted.
The new advice, which has been developed with support from the medical profession, advises general practitioners, doctors, nurses and health advisers on the changes to the drug driving offence and what it means for patients.
Police can already prosecute drivers if they are driving whilst impaired by drugs, including medicinal drugs. The new rules will mean it will be an offence to be over the specified limits for each drug whilst driving, as it is with drink driving. The limits for the majority of medicinal drugs are above the normal doses. Unlike the existing ‘impairment’ offence, the new law provides a medical defence for patients who are taking their medicine in accordance with instructions – either from a healthcare professional or printed in the accompanying leaflet – provided, of course, they are not impaired.
The guidance, therefore, also advises patients who take legitimately supplied medicines to keep evidence with them in case they are stopped by police to help speed up any investigation into the medical defence and reduce the inconvenience to the patient. The new regulations will come into force at the same time as new equipment to test drivers for cannabis and cocaine at the roadside is expected to become available to the police. If a driver is tested positive they will be taken to a police station where a further evidential test will be taken, which, if positive will allow police to prosecute a driver for being over the limit.
The new offence will be introduced alongside major changes to drink-drive laws as part of the Deregulation Bill which will remove the right for drivers who fail a roadside breath test to demand a blood or urine sample at the police station. This test can take place several hours later, which means some drivers who were over the limit when tested at the roadside would have time to sober up. The Deregulation Bill is currently progressing through Parliament and is expected to receive Royal Assent at the end of the year. New mobile evidential breath testing instruments are also expected to be approved early in 2015 allowing police to take evidential breath tests at the roadside, helping to streamline enforcement and support police officers in making sure our roads are kept safe and free from drink and drug drivers. 2nd March is therefore the most suitable date to bring in all the provisions together. The police support this approach.
The Government Chemist contributed to the consultation process which has resulted in these guidelines and regulations being published. We are particularly interested in the implementation of evidential roadside breath testing devices – which require valid certified reference materials (CRMs) to be used to demonstrate their accuracy – and of roadside tests for cannabis and cocaine. These will also require CRMs to check their validity and must also be subject to testing to ensure that their performance characteristics are fully understood.